Manchester people have always pioneered radical new ideas. This cradle of the industrial revolution witnessed the bloodshed of the Peterloo Massacre (1819), when a mass meeting calling for voting reform was brutally broken up by the authorities. Manchester workers were also strong supporters of Chartism – a popular movement to win working-class men the vote – in mid-Victorian times.
On 1 April 1918 the very first air force in the world to be independent of army or navy control came into being: the RAF. Towards the end of the First World War saw the pilots of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service being amalgamated into a new airborne branch of the military, taking as its motto ‘Per ardua ad astra’ which translates in English as ‘Through adversity to the stars’. At its head was Major-General Sir Hugh Trenchard who was appointed as its first Chief of the Air Staff.
She may have been a servant seduced by a co-worker or her employer; or she may have been brought up in a poor area, surrounded by thieves and prostitutes, and so was at risk of becoming a sex worker herself. She was possibly in her mid-to-late teens, and from a humble background. When she was ‘seduced’ (a term applied whether or not she was coerced) and had sex, she was a fallen woman. However, the fallen woman might also include other kinds of societal outcasts, including thieves, those suffering from alcohol addiction and the homeless. In the latter part of the 19th century, many individuals were involved with the ‘rescuing’ of these women, and homes established by different charities and religious groups, including the Salvation Army and Ladies’ Associations. However, in some places, including the city of Oxford, similar efforts were being made even prior to Victoria becoming Queen – the first London penitentiary had been established just after the dawning of the 19th century.
Privateers were privately owned, well-armed, ships that were commissioned by the Admiralty to attack enemy merchant vessels during wartime. As such, they operated within the law and the commissioning process required them to be awarded an authorisation called a ‘letter of marque’ to prove their legitimacy. This document granted each ‘private ship of war’ the legal right to operate against named enemy nations of Great Britain during times of war only. It was a dangerous role, but the financial rewards for owners and crewmen alike could be great.
To mark the centenary of the establishment of the RAF on 1 April 1918, TheGenealogist has released thousands of records of individuals who were recorded in a number of Air Force Lists from 1921 to 1944. Also released at this time are copies of Flight magazine for 1909, 1910 and 1911, plus an important collection of historic reference books.
Humans have used receptacles for coins ever since they have had money to carry, and in different periods have kept coins in a larger purse or bag, along with whatever other personal items were needed for daily life. Until the late Tudor period, men and women kept valuables and personal belongings in bags or pouches suspended from a girdle around their waist.
The Georgian period was a key stage in our modern history so some understanding of it is essential for family historians who want to push their research back into the 18th century and beyond. John Wintrip’s handbook is an invaluable introduction to it. In a sequence of concise, insightful chapters he focuses on those aspects of the period that are particularly relevant to genealogical research and he presents a detailed guide to the variety of sources that readers can consult as they pursue their research.
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